Primarily found in Europe and North America, Black Elderberries have long been used in traditional cultures to support immune function. Elderberry has an extensive history of being used during seasonal immune challenges. Regarded as an “Elder” plant in Native American Herbalism, Elderberry has been used collectively by many tribes as a tonic medicine and food to promote health and vitality. Elderberries have also been used as a food source for making wine, and syrup.
Elderberry has long been proposed as being immune supportive, and supports the body's natural defense. Research studies show Black Elderberry to have immune modulating and antioxidant properties. Because Elderberry is high in flavonoid rich compounds, it exerts antioxidant protection on cells. By providing antioxidant protection, Elderberry aids in protecting cellular health from free radical damage and airborne elements.
Flavonoids such as quercetin and rutin, and anthocyanins identified as cyanidin-3-ambubioside and cyanidin-3-glucoside.
1.) Frank T, Janssen M, Netzet G, Christian B, Bitsch I, Netzel M. Absorption and excretion of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) anthocyanins in healthy humans. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;29(8):525-33.2.) Bagchi D, Roy S, Patel V, He G, Khanna S, Ojha N, Phillips C, Ghosh S, Bagchi M, Sen CK. Safety and whole-body antioxidant potential of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation of edible berries. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jan;281(1-2):197-209. 3.) Roschek B, Fink RC, McMichael MD, et al. Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry 2009;70:1255-61.4.) Frank T, Sonntag S, Strass G, Bitsch I, Bitsch R, Netzel M. Urinary pharmacokinetics of cyanidin glycosides in healthy young men following consumption of elderberry juice. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 2005;25(2):47-56.5.) Vlachojannis JE, Cameron M, Chrubasik S. A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):1-8.6.) J of Alt. Compl. Med. 1995; 1:361-9. Youdim KA, Martin A, Joseph JA. Free Radical Biol. Med. 2000; 29: 51-60. Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M.
If you have a medical condition or take pharmaceutical drugs, or if you are pregnant, please consult your doctor prior to use.
This information in our Herbal Reference Guide is intended only as a general reference for further exploration, and is not a replacement for professional health advice. This content does not provide dosage information, format recommendations, toxicity levels, or possible interactions with prescription drugs. Accordingly, this information should be used only under the direct supervision of a qualified health practitioner
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The dried fruit of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) has long been used as a culinary spice and as a traditional medicine, and today it is ubiquitous in most cuisines. Black Pepper is made from the plant’s unripened green drupes (stone fruit), which are called “peppercorns.” They are briefly boiled and dried or cooked. Native to southern and southeast Asia, Black Pepper’s use in Indian cooking dates to the first century BC, and it became popular across Europe during the Roman Empire. In ancient Greece, it was so valued that it was used as currency. The active constituent called Piperine is what gives Black Pepper its pungency.