The properties of Artichoke leaf have been recognized since antiquity. It was particularly popular in the 16th-19th centuries. The eclectic physicians of North America used Artichoke leaf to support healthy urine flow and production and to support normal function of the digestive system and liver*. In European herbal medicine it has been used to support the same functions, but also to support healthy skin, encourage a normal appetite, and to support healthy bile flow and cholesterol metabolism*. Good digestion is the foundation of good health. Studies indicate that Artichoke leaf extract helps maintain normal bile production, supporting fat digestion and metabolism*.
Sesquiterpene lactones including cynaropicrin, caffeic acid derivatives (polyphenols). (The next group is sometimes referred to as Caffeoylquinic Acids or Chlorogenic Acids they are synonymous) Chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid), cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoyl quinic acid) and many other dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, flavonoids (mainly derivatives of luteolin).
Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, Wallis C, Simpson HC. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2008 Sep;15(9):668-75. PubMed PMID: 18424099. Holtmann G, Adam B, Haag S, Collet W, Grünewald E, Windeck T. Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia: a six-week placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Dec;18(11-12):1099-105. PubMed PMID: 14653829.
Do not take artichoke leaf if you have gallstones or a bile duct obstruction. Not for use during pregnancy or lactation. If you have a medical condition or take pharmaceutical drugs please consult your doctor prior to use.
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The dried fruit of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) has long been used as a culinary spice and as a traditional medicine, and today it is ubiquitous in most cuisines. Black Pepper is made from the plant’s unripened green drupes (stone fruit), which are called “peppercorns.” They are briefly boiled and dried or cooked. Native to southern and southeast Asia, Black Pepper’s use in Indian cooking dates to the first century BC, and it became popular across Europe during the Roman Empire. In ancient Greece, it was so valued that it was used as currency. The active constituent called Piperine is what gives Black Pepper its pungency.